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Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Data Science, & Statistics


Machine learning is a term that refers to the study of Data Science is the study of data. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a term that refers to Deep Learning is a term used to describe the process of learning Statistics. Most organizations, businesses, and individuals use these technologies today, whether they realize it or not. If you deal with computers, you're probably familiar with at least a few of them - but the terminology can be complex, and its application might be contradictory.

Big data is the period of the twenty-first century. Big data refers to data collections that are so huge and complicated that earlier data processing solutions are insufficient. Various approaches of generating value from big data are being harnessed and experimented with by researchers and businesses. The worldwide linked world provides an endless number of possibilities for generating, collecting, and storing data for analysis. We've never had access to so much data before, and we're only now starting to figure out how to unlock the enormous amount of significance and information it contains.

Data science, machine learning, and deep learning are relatively new concepts that offer a new set of approaches and procedures, but they have also become engulfed in hype and branding. Companies may use these terms without necessarily leveraging their procedures to appeal to customers as "cutting-edge." We'll look at the differences between these terms, whether they're new or old, and whether they're just various names for the same thing in this article.

Statistics and Artificial Intelligence

Let's start with statistics, as these subjects have existed for decades, if not centuries, prior to the invention of computers. Statistics is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of statistics and the application of statistical models. The theories and implementations are both based on mathematical equations and try to identify and formalize correlations in data variables. Samples, populations, and hypotheses are all used in statistical modelling.

As computers became more widely available and computing power grew more commoditized in the latter half of the twentieth century, people began to use statistics in computational applications. This enabled the processing of larger and more diverse data sets, as well as the use of statistical approaches that would have been impossible to implement without computational capacity.

Artificial Intelligence is a natural progression from this first meeting of arithmetic and computer science. [Check out this interesting tour through the history of AI.] Statistical modelling began as a purely mathematical or scientific exercise, but once it became computing, it became possible to apply statistics to 'human' concerns. The idea that we could develop an "artificial" human intelligence gained traction in the postwar period, thanks to passionate optimism about the potential of computing and the belief that human cognitive processes were basically computational.

Artificial intelligence was formalized as a subfield of computer science in the 1960s. From the basic computational statistics paradigm to the present assumption that robots may replicate true human capabilities, such as decision making and executing more "human" jobs, artificial intelligence has evolved due to new technology and a better understanding of how humans' minds work.

General artificial intelligence and applied artificial intelligence are the two main branches of modern artificial intelligence. When we think about systems like self-driving vehicles or machines that can trade stocks intelligently, we're talking about applied artificial intelligence. The concept of generic artificial intelligence, which states that a machine may theoretically do any task, such as:

  • Getting around

  • Planning

  • Performing social or business transactions

  • Recognizing objects and sounds

  • Working creatively

  • Speaking and translating

Artificial intelligence evolves and changes as technology progresses, and it will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Currently, the only reliable measure for success or failure is the ability to perform specific jobs.

Machine Learning

Artificial intelligence had acquired a lot of traction in computer science by 1959. Instead of engineers “teaching” or programming computers to have what they need to carry out tasks, Arthur Samuel, a leader and specialist in the subject, theorized that computers could educate themselves - learn something without being expressly programmed to do so. This was dubbed "machine learning" by Samuel.

Machine learning is a type of artificial intelligence based on the idea that systems that can alter their actions and responses as they are exposed to new data are more efficient, scalable, and adaptable for particular applications than systems explicitly programmed (by humans). There are numerous current applications that demonstrate this notion, including navigation apps and recommendation engines (shopping, shows, and so on).

Typically, machine learning is classified as either supervised or unsupervised. The computer uses supervised learning to infer functions from known inputs to known outputs. Unsupervised MACHINE LEARNING works solely with the inputs, changing or discovering patterns in the data without a known or expected outcome. 

Machine learning is a task-oriented statistical transformation application. A procedure or series of stages, regulations, or other guidelines will be required to complete the work. An algorithm is a procedure or collection of rules that must be followed in calculations or problem-solving processes. When an engineer creates a learning machine, he or she creates a set of algorithms that the machine will use to process data.

As the machine learns and receives feedback, it will usually update the algorithm rather than the statistical adjustments used. For example, if the machine has been trained to factor two criteria in evaluating data and then discovers that a third criteria has a strong association with the other two and improves computation accuracy, it can include that third criteria in the analysis. The stages (algorithm) would be changed, but not the fundamental math.

In the end, machine learning is a method of "teaching" computers to adapt to changes in data. We now have an almost endless amount of digital data being created on a continuous basis. The amount and variety of that data grow at a rapid and exponential rate. Machine analysis provides advantages over human analysis in terms of speed, accuracy, and lack of bias, which is why machine learning is crucial and has reached a tipping point.

Deep Learning

According to industry analyst Bernard Marr, deep learning goes much further than machine learning as applied ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE - it may be termed the cutting edge. Machine learning is used to train and work on massive quantities of finite data, such as all of the automobiles produced in the 2000s. Machine learning is strong at learning from the "known but new," but not so good at learning from the "unknown and new."

Deep learning is designed to learn from input data and apply it to other data, whereas machine learning learns from input data to create the desired output. Image recognition is a classic example of deep learning. Let's say you want a machine to analyze an image and figure out what it means to the human eye. A person's face, a flower, a landscape, a truck, a structure, and so on. To do so, the computer would have to learn from thousands or millions of photographs before applying what it has learned to each new image you want it to recognize.

Considering machine learning can only produce an output from a data set – whether according to a known algorithm or based on the data's intrinsic structure - it is insufficient for this purpose. Machine learning might be used to assess whether an image was of an “X” – say, a flower – and it would learn and improve over time. However, the outcome is binary (yes/no) and is determined by the algorithm rather than the data. In the case of picture recognition, the result is not binary and is not determined by the algorithm.

Because neural networks are used in deep learning, this is the case. Neural networks will be the subject of a separate piece, but for now, we only need to know that they don't calculate in the same way that traditional machines do. Neural networks, rather than following an algorithm, are built to perform several ‘micro' calculations on data. The data, not an algorithm, determines which calculations to perform and in what order. Weighting data for ‘confidence' is also possible with neural networks. This results in a probabilistic rather than deterministic system that can perform activities that we consider to require more "human-like" judgement.

Deep learning neural networks are large and complex, with a lot of layers and micro calculations. Although the machine still learns from data, it is capable of more complex behaviours than machine learning. Deep learning is well suited to applications such as facial, image, and handwriting recognition.

Here are some intriguing examples of current, real-world machine learning and deep learning technology:

  • Sensors and onboard analytics let self-driving cars perceive obstacles more rapidly and correctly, allowing them to react more swiftly and accurately.

  • By detecting objects and anticipating the colours that humans see, software applications can recolour black and white photographs.

  • When basic case details are entered into a computer, machines can predict the outcome of legal processes.

Data Science

Statistics is a mathematical discipline. Computer science encompasses artificial intelligence, deep learning, and machine learning. Data science is a completely different animal.

Data science is a formal definition of an interdisciplinary approach to data mining that integrates statistics, various branches of computer science, and scientific methodologies and processes to mine data in automated ways without requiring human participation. Big data is becoming increasingly important in modern data research.

In order to handle massive data, data science contains many tools, techniques, and algorithms taken from these domains, as well as others. Data science, like machine learning, aims to create accurate predictions and automate and perform real-time activities, such as purchasing internet traffic or automatically generating content.

Data science is less about math and coding and more about analyzing data and creating new ways to process it. Data science can span the complete spectrum of data processing, not only the algorithms or statistics connected to data, by relying on the fields of data integration, distributed architecture, automated machine learning, data visualization, data engineering, and automated data-driven decisions.


These phrases are sometimes used interchangeably, and even mistakenly, in the same sentence. A corporation promoting a new technology may boast about its cutting-edge data science approaches when in reality, they aren't utilising anything close to it. Companies are simply aligning themselves with the words' meanings: innovation, forward-thinking, and new applications for technology and data. This isn't necessarily a bad thing; it's just a reminder that just because a company claims to use these technologies in its product design doesn't mean it actually does.


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